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A muffler does 2 things. It changes the quality of sound coming from the engine exhaust and it controls the flow of gases, either increasing or reducing performance.
As the piston moves down the cylinder exhaust gas is released through the open valves. The gas travels at speeds over 100m/s but more importantly it creates a pressure wave that travels at the speed of sound. That pressure wave creates noise. By having a long expanding pipe the gases have room to expand and cool, reducing the pressure and noise.
wave travels along the exhaust pipe and out but also
reflects back up the pipe and the harmonic it creates when
it interacts with the next cycle can improve or reduce
engine performance, and often both. At certain revs
performance (power) may be increased for a particular
engine while at other revs it may be reduced.
Configuration of the exhaust tube design plus the introduction of chambers and baffles (mufflers) can even this out, thus increasing power where you may want it most without necessarily losing power in other places.
Mufflers can be designed to either dissipate the noise or reflect it back in such a way that the sound waves cancel each other out. It's quite literally rocket science since you are dealing with expanding gases and pressures, and designing chambers to accomodate those. Get it right and your bike has increased performance and a rumble that turns heads. Get it wrong and you become public enemy number 1.
Most mufflers have three chambers with damping tubes
coming from them. While this is effective in noise
reduction, it can impact on performance. A free
flowing system enables better performance but results in
excessive noise. To get the best compromise we
design and build our own damping tubes and pack the system
with materials that absorb the unpleasant higher noises
while leaving the lower sounds.
If all this sounds complicated you can rest assured that
each Classic & Custom Motorcycle Mufflers and Exhausts
system is carefully designed and measured to your bike and
hand built to the highest quality leaving you not only
with a perfect and fantastic looking muffler but one that
is truly unique.